İbrahim Kaypakkaya was a leader of the Turkish communist movement. He was a former member of the Revolutionary Workers and Peasants Party of Turkey. He later split from this party and established the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist (TKP-ML.)
Following the military memorandum of 1971 the Turkish government cracked down on the communist movement in Turkey, and was successful in destroying the machinery of the TKP-ML. Kaypakkaya and several of his colleagues were arrested. Kaypakkaya died in prison in 1973 where he was tortured, and finally, shot in the head by his interrogator.